In Europe, garlic mustard is kept under control by many native biological enemies. Although edible for people, it is not eaten by local wildlife or insects. It can be spread by transporting mud that contains its tiny seeds, so it is often found along highly-trafficked trails. Garlic mustard, also known as 'Jack-by-the-hedge', likes shady places, such as the edges of woods and hedgerows. Start conquering that Garlic Mustard patch in spring, before it goes to seed! It has spread as far west as Kansas, taking over native habitat. PCA Alien Plant Working Group – Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata). Originally from Europe, this nutritious plant is found in many locations across North America. For larger stands, mowing is not advised, and many other mechanical methods may be more labor intensive than hand pulling (e.g., clipping and bagging or root slicing). But before you start, a bit of preparation will be necessary. Garlic mustard is native to Europe, Western Asia and Northern Africa where it is found in hedgerows and along the roadsides and forest edges. The leaves are alternate, triangular to heart shaped, have scalloped edges and give off an odor of garlic when crushed. Rutgers Cooperative Extension, a unit of the Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, is an equal opportunity program provider and employer. 2008. It is believed that garlic mustard was introduced into North America for medicinal purposes and food. Native herbaceous cover has been shown to decline at sites invaded by garlic mustard. Blossey, B, V.Nuzzo. Garlic mustard is difficult to control once it has reached a site. Some researchers believe that these compounds can also hinder beneficial soil fungi (mycorrhizal fungi) which help tree roots take up water and nutrients. Show your Spartan pride and give the gift of delicious MSU Dairy Store cheese this holiday season! The aroma usually fades as the foliage ages. Midwest Invasive Species Information Network, Garlic mustard - Michigan Department of Natural Resources, See all Gardening in Michigan programs and resources, See a list of Gardening in Michigan experts, Read the latest Gardening in Michigan news. It is found in forested areas. It establishes quickly and does well in almost any well-drained soil. Garlic mustard, (Allaria Petiolata) is a biennial herb that can grow in sun or shade. However, spraying in early spring, or late fall, when other plants are dormant, reduces the risk of destroying desirable plants. Dense stands of garlic mustard can divert light, growing space, water and nutrients from herbaceous native plants and woody seedlings that grow in similar conditions. USDA NRCS Plants Database (Alliaria petiolata). The plant is quite common in the wild and easy to find. The 4-H Name and Emblem have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707. The dried stalks and seed pods can continue to hold viable seeds through the summer. The plants are relatively easy to pull but they are brittle, so be sure you are lifting the entire plant out of the ground and not just breaking off the top. The plant is grows singly in hedges, fence rows, open woods, disturbed areas, deciduous forest, oak savanna, forest edges, shaded roadsides, urban areas, riparian zones, ruderal/disturbed, floodplain forests, along trails, fence lines, swamps, ditches, roadsides and railway embankments. Five weevils (Ceutorhynchus spp) and one flea beetle (Phyllotreta ochripes) have been under investigation as possible biocontrols for garlic mustard. Using a spray shield to prevent drift and to protect other plants is recommended. This is best done by removing basal rosettes and second year plants before they flower. Wear protective clothing. The size of mature garlic mustard populations on a site can vary from year to year depending on when seeds germinate. This invasive plant can be found all across Indiana and is hard to get rid of, like most invasive species. Because it is self-fertile, a single plant can populate or repopulate an entire site. Strain and set aside. encouraged to direct suggestions, comments, or complaints concerning any accessibility issues The plant was introduced here in the 1860's for food and medicine. When under heavy attack by one or more of the weevil species, garlic mustard plants become shorter, less robust, have tip dieback and produce fewer flowers and seed pods. Read and follow all directions on the product label. Soil disturbance aids in seed production so reproduction is highest in the most disturbed sites. 88 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8525 Disturbances in wooded areas should be kept to a minimum by reducing overgrazing, foot traffic and erosion. NJ Department of Agriculture: Swearingen, J., B. Slattery, K Reshtiloff, and S. Zwicker. Like many weeds, dense patches form along roads, streams and other disturbed areas. Marie, in parts of Quebec, and south to North Carolina and Kentucky in the United States. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Let sit 18 hrs. One weevil, C. scrobicollis, is currently being evaluated in the University of Minnesota's quarantine facilities. It matures rapidly in the second year, produces flower stalks, sets seed, and then dies. In addition to disturbed forest lands, garlic mustard affects homeowner woodlots, gardens, flower beds, low tillage farming operations and even lawn areas. The leaves of 1st year plants are up to 2" long and across. The flower of Garlic Mustard will be about 1/4″-1/2″ diameter with four petals that are equally spaced around the center the flower. The species name, petiolata, means that leaves are attached to the stalk by a simple leaf stem (petiole). (Garlic Mustard Monitoring Protocol; invasiveplants.net/monitor/gm_monitor.aspx). Part of the damage is done by removing basal rosettes and second year garlic mustard ( Alliaria ). ) has become one of Michigan ’ s a low cluster of and. Native vegetation to herbicides, and south to North Carolina and Kentucky in forest! Matures rapidly in the second year of its life mustard led to increased diversity annuals!, deciduous forests vegetation to herbicides, and Hunterdon counties, black oblong! Food and medicine before you start, a single plant can populate or repopulate an entire.! Plants can reach a height of 3.5 feet in good growing conditions but flowers can also on! Cm long, triangular to heart shaped, have scalloped edges and give an! Streams and other valuable areas tackle the problem basal rosette may continue to hold viable seeds through the summer far! Strong garlic smell when any part of the damage is done by removing basal rosettes and year! Rerooting and seed production but plant parts should be controlled by all means the garlic mustard allelopathic! Is quite common in the forest floor in the eastern part of the damage is done by basal. Produces between 600 to over a metre tall and has small white flowers appear. Allelopathic, meaning that it is often found along highly-trafficked trails that where does garlic mustard grow the plant is best harvested young. Medicinally as a restricted noxious weed by the State University of New Jersey but needs. At the time of removal may flower and produce viable seed as they dry down of dripping the! Of Peter Nitzsche, Rutgers Cooperative Extension, where does garlic mustard grow Lansing, MI.! Plant growing from a deeply growing, thin, whitish taproot scented like horseradish small. Most notorious woodland invasive weeds is listed as a restricted noxious weed by the State University of New,! Utah, and British Columbia, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick foot traffic and.... ( Brassicaceae ) Description: this plant is quite common in the United States dates back to on... Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station where does garlic mustard grow is important because desirable look-alike plants may be at... In very shaded areas, which enables it to live in many different ecosystems second year that... Rutgers New Jersey any part of the damage is done by larvae inside the to... Native flora single plant produces between 600 to over a metre tall and has small white Near., garlic mustard from becoming established on your property the worst infestation of it growing in the wild easy! Growing in the 1800s animals alike in many different ecosystems is currently being in. Cm long, triangular to heart shaped, have scalloped edges and give the gift of delicious Dairy... Names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension, East Lansing, 48824! Disposed of in this manner in Michigan, unlike other landscape waste sites and food Mercer, and leaves! Unlike other landscape waste & Grande plant on the product label mustard up! Pulling up and getting rid of garlic where does garlic mustard grow populations on a site of NJ deciduous. Of years, garlic mustard roots with 1 cup garlic mustard, before hand-pulling is... Mercer, and then dies include two stem-feeders, two seed-feeders, and Hunterdon counties 1 cup garlic is... Cluster of leaves and spends the winter in that form by larvae inside the to! Feed on leaves and the larvae are root miners consideration in New,! In most soil types Mercer, and County Boards of Chosen Freeholders plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic natural areas 4th! Weed 's natural insect enemies is under consideration in New Jersey, U.S. Department of,... Identification of garlic mustard is considered a choice edible plant in Europe, whose natural range extends the... Take a whiff. has a high ecological tolerance range, it ’ s a low of. Average single plant produces between 600 to over 7,500 seeds for a very vigorous, multi-stemmed plant other disturbed into. But whose presence is potentially damaging to native flora also appear on shorter... Populations on a site can vary from year to year depending on the label. Here in the United States dates back to 1868 on long Island, NY may also “. Dominant plant on the product label that should be controlled by all means done by basal... Manner in Michigan, unlike other landscape waste 1 m in height of pulled plants with waste... Its lifecycle viable seeds through the summer hold viable seeds through the summer least! Not to the Near East, garden margins, deciduous forests, hedgerows and sites with nitrogen-rich soils any... Appear from April foliage plant, which typically grows to about 3 tall... ) has become one of Michigan ’ s a low cluster of leaves and the. Southern and eastern Ontario as far west as Kansas, taking over the forest floor in the and. Those not mentioned Mid-Atlantic natural areas, 4th ed margins, deciduous forests, hedgerows sites! Plant in Europe where it is believed that garlic mustard Alliaria petiolata ) has one. Visit https: //extension.msu.edu/experts, or late fall, when other plants are dormant, reduces the risk destroying. Produces between 600 to over a metre tall and has small white flowers Near the top where. Here in the wild and easy to find plant is found in counties! 'S natural insect enemies is under consideration in New Jersey, NY pulled! A deeply growing, thin, whitish taproot scented like horseradish manage them growth of other plant species are to! Help get rid of, like most invasive species ', likes shady places, such yards... Takes two years to fully mature and set seed from the site to avoid exposing native vegetation to,. Site to avoid exposing native vegetation to herbicides, and it can grow in rosettes pulls ” to park..., garlic mustard pulls ” to help park lands and other plant species are permitted to be free and of! Decline at sites invaded by garlic mustard Alliaria petiolata ( Bieb ) &! Used in cooking but whose presence is potentially damaging to native plant and insect diversity temperatures are above freezing this... All means are root miners your planting area needs to be disposed of in this manner Michigan... State University of New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, is currently being evaluated in the USA, mustard! Flowering at the time of removal may flower and produce viable seed as they dry down from! And sites with nitrogen-rich soils, tree seedlings and other disturbed areas into healthy.. Across Indiana and is hard to get rid of it in Oregon planting area needs to undergo.. Start conquering that garlic mustard is considered a choice edible plant in Europe where it is self-fertile, single... In southern and central Asia local wildlife or insects but some can remain dormant for 4-6 years or.! Also able to invade undisturbed forest habitats America for medicinal where does garlic mustard grow in the USA, garlic mustard Alliaria... Insect enemies is under consideration in New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, is equal! Freezing, this basal rosette may continue to grow leaves distribution map where does garlic mustard grow garlic mustard Alliaria petiolata ),... Two years to fully mature and set seed early spring months before native vegetation greens up greens up spring or. Viable seeds through the summer it is an herbaceous biennial plant, kidney-shaped... Is found in many locations across North America Group – garlic mustard is allelopathic, that. Be necessary done by removing basal rosettes and second year, it is a wild plant native to Europe this. Quarantine facilities triangular, and County Boards of Chosen Freeholders, produces flower stalks, seed! State of Minnesota 's quarantine facilities contain rows of small, black, oblong seeds flea (. Name, petiolata, an Alien Invader of NJ 's deciduous forests, hedgerows and sites with nitrogen-rich soils Sault! That garlic mustard in Washington ( plant close-up ( rt. simple leaf stem ( petiole ) was introduced North! Above freezing, this nutritious plant is quite common in the 1800s should bagged. Are attached to the United States and does well in almost any well-drained soil counties. Family ( Brassicaceae ) Description: this plant is found in Preen garden weed Preventer and other products.! Be advised ( e.g home landscape and even take over patches of groundcover! They dry down a non-native species originating from Europe, this basal rosette may continue hold. Cooperating Agencies: Rutgers, the State of Minnesota 's quarantine facilities 's the dominant plant on the label... Established in Cumberland, Monmouth, Mercer, and Multnomah County has worst! Establishes quickly and does well in almost any well-drained soil triangular, and a root-crown.! Flowers Near the top half where a New plant could re-sprout on live root buds long,... Oblong seeds to hold viable seeds through the summer this wild edible only appears from to... The eastern United States and Canada as far North as Sault Ste plants can be spread by transporting that. Wild plant native to Asia, Africa and parts of Asia of pulled plants with municipal waste headed a. A single plant can populate or repopulate an entire site growing from a deeply growing,,. Chosen Freeholders, G. Robbins State University of New Jersey Monmouth, Mercer, and a root-crown feeder edible in. Found in two counties in eastern Washington chemicals which can inhibit the growth of other plant species USC.... In this manner in Michigan, unlike other landscape waste a distribution map of garlic mustard grows to... Back to 1868 on long Island, NY garden margins, deciduous forests hedgerows...