Occupancy of small forest tracts may be ephemeral or intermittent. 165 pp. Given the observed increase in the Hooded Warbler population in Canada, habitat availability does not appear to be a limiting factor at present. A Final Report to Carolinian Canada and Long Point Bird Observatory, Port Rowan, ON. Federation of Ontario Naturalists, Don Mills, ON and Long Point Bird Observatory, Port Rowan, ON. Hurricane Katrina impacts the breeding bird community in a bottomland hardwood forest of the Pearl River basin, Louisiana. 1997. This species is considered a “gap specialist” as nest sites are consistently associated with canopy gaps with a high density of shrubs (Chiver et al. Is there an observed continuing decline in index of area of occupancy? 2011. Ottawa. Canopy gap habitat can be accurately identified using fine spatial resolution Ikonos imagery but this approach is cost-prohibitive at a larger scale (Pasher et al. Draft manuscript, March 2010. Figure 1. Canadian Atlas of Bird Banding, Volume 1: Doves, Cuckoos, and Hummingbirds through Passerines, 1921-1995. 2011. Pairing rates at study sites in Ontario (e.g., 75%, range 60% to 90% at SWCR, BSC unpubl. The Canadian population is currently estimated to be between 1000 and 2000 breeding birds (much less than 1% of the global population). Fledglings being fed by their parents generally stay within the breeding territory but move into areas with dense shrubs and saplings in the 0-4 m understory layer (Eng 2007; Rush and Stutchbury 2008). The 2011 population estimate is based on the 2007 count data and assumes that the overall population has a balanced sex ratio with few non-territorial floaters such that the number of mature individuals is twice the number of breeding territories. 2009). Version 2.07.2017. This insect-eating passerine begins breeding when it is 1 year old. Langin, K.M., P.P. Bird Studies Canada, Port Rowan, ON. Hooded Warblers do not visit feeders and may only stop off in your yard during migration, but you can still provide habitat for them by landscaping with native trees and shrubs. Ontario Woodlot Association (OWA). Bird Studies Canada, Port Rowan, ON. There is a high probability of regular immigration of birds into Canada from the US population given the pattern of northward range expansion (see Distribution), the species’ biology (see Dispersal and migration), and proximity to large, rapidly increasing populations in adjacent US states. 2009; Chiver et al. 2011; NatureServe 2011). March 2003, revised April 2004. Figure 4. Beck, D. Lepage, and A.R. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA. 2008. In prep. Carson, J., D. Badzinski, D. Graham, and J. McCracken. Due to its predilection for early successional canopy gaps, this species consistently occurs at higher densities in mature forests that have been subject to selective logging within the past 2 to 20 years than in forests that have not been logged for at least 30 to 50 years (Annand and Thompson 1997; Robinson and Robinson 1999; Hetzel and Leberg 2006; Eng 2007). Seasonal Bird News. Hooded Warblers spend most of their time in the forest understory, hopping on the ground and between branches while fanning and flicking their tail to expose white outer tail feathers. Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario, 2001-2005. Poleward shifts in breeding bird distribution in New York State. At the start of OBBA1 in 1981, the species was considered “a straggler that occasionally bred in Ontario” (Sutherland and Gartshore 1987). Overwinter survival of neotropical migratory birds in early-successional and mature tropical forests. Projected percent increase in total number of mature individuals over the next 10 years. Bird Studies Canada, Environment Canada, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. data; Badzinski and Calvert in prep.). Unpublished report to the Endangered Species Recovery Fund, World Wildlife Fund Canada and Canadian Wildlife Service. It appears that a greater proportion of the population uses the shorter Gulf of Mexico crossing in spring migration than in fall, and that adults are more likely than immature birds to cross the Gulf in the fall (Chiver et al. and M.E. Heagy, A., D. Martin, and J. McCracken. Unpublished report to Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario Region, and Environment Canada Action 21 Program. The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) assesses the national status of wild species, subspecies, varieties, or other designatable units that are considered to be at risk in Canada. These surveys covered most but not all areas with known or potentially occupied habitat in southern Ontario. Sorenson, J.L. Environment Canada. Habitat Identification and Mapping for the Acadian Flycatcher, Hooded Warbler and Prothonotary Warbler in Southern Ontario. Norris, B.J.M. Cadman, M.D., P.F.J. Bay-breasted warbler. In most squares within the breeding range of this species, at least 25 point counts were completed (mostly at predetermined roadside locations). 2006. At SWCR, each year about 20% of nesting pairs produce two successful broods and a few instances of females attempting a third brood have been reported (BSC unpubl. Based on these population increases, the status of this species in Ontario under the Endangered Species Act, 2007 was downgraded from Threatened to Special Concern in 2009. Does male extra-territory foray effort affect fertilization success in hooded warblers Wilsonia citrina? Estimated percent of continuing decline in total number of mature individuals within 5 years. 2008. You will not receive a reply. Hooded Warblers rarely return to breed at their natal site, whereas adults show relatively strong fidelity to breeding and wintering sites. Norris, E.M. Tuttle, and R.A. Gonser. The woods at the west end of Stone Barn Road have had breeding Hooded Warbler. Reason for designation In Canada, the range and abundance of this forest-nesting species have increased substantially since the species was last assessed. COSEWIC status report on the Hooded Warbler Setophaga citrina in Canada – 2012. Pitcher, D.R. Average territory size at sites in Ontario is generally larger than reported in Pennsylvania: e.g., 3.2 +/-2.7 ha, N=33, range 0.3 to 11.4 ha at the St. Williams Conservation Reserve (SWCR); and 1.1 to 2.4 ha (N=16) in smaller woodlots (<50 ha) situated within 20 km of SWCR (BSC unpubl. Ecology and Conservation of Neotropical Migrant Landbirds. 2000). Journal of Wildlife Management 70(5):1416-1424. Element summary report for Wilsonia citrina. Unpublished Report for Environment Canada, Interdepartmental Recovery Fund Project # 31, FY 2002-03. In the forest undergrowth, this skulking warbler seems to call attention to itself by frequently fanning its tail quickly … 2011; Environment Canada 2011; NatureServe 2011). Food supply does not appear to be a limiting factor during the breeding season or during spring and fall migration (Nagy and Smith 1997; Buehler et al. A summary of the breeding status of Hooded Warblers in Ontario. Survival of fledgling Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) in small and large forest fragments. Total field effort in southern Ontario increased moderately during OBBA2 and comparisons between atlases have been adjusted to correct for effort (Cadman et al. 2011; Walters and Nol 2011). Volunteers and field biologists continue to report Hooded Warbler breeding occurrences to Bird Studies Canada (BSC) and the Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre (NHIC). Stutchbury. and B.J. 2007. The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) was created in 1977 as a result of a recommendation at the Federal-Provincial Wildlife Conference held in 1976. Marra, Z. Németh, F.R. Bisson, I.A. The Hooded Warbler is a long-distance migrant that breeds in eastern North America and winters in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. 2007 Surveys of Acadian Flycatcher & Hooded Warbler in southern Ontario. Hooded Warblers raise young cowbirds instead of their own young, which frequently perish in the parasitized nests. National Recovery Plan for Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) and Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina). See Population section for further details on recent changes in distribution and abundance. Rich, T.D., C.J. 2007). Couturier (eds.). The Canadian breeding distribution is restricted to southern Ontario, where it is considered to be a rare or locally uncommon breeder. Blancher, M.S.W. The male's bright yellow cheeks and forehead surrounded by a black hood and throat will surely capture you. 1994; Weir 2008). Fortin, K. Lindsay, D. Badzinski. Avian response to removal of a forest dominant: consequences of hemlock woolly adelgid infestations. There is strong sexual segregation by habitat, with males preferring closed canopy forests whereas females prefer open woodland, early successional forest, and scrub habitats (Lynch et al. Sutherland, G.G. The breeding range of this species corresponds closely to the North American Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome, being widely distributed in forested landscapes east of the Great Plains. Global Change Biology 15:1866-1883. hooded warbler. 19 pp. data, 2004-05). Federation of Ontario Naturalists. Fortin, F. Csillag, and K. Lindsay. 1995; Chiver et al. Brown, D.R., T.W. Creating a bird-friendly backyard can provide excellent stopover habitat to support warblers as they migrate to and from the breeding grounds. (Updated 2017/08/10) Top Partners in Flight (PIF). None of the proposed sites with critical habitat are on federal lands (Environment Canada 2011). The Hooded Warbler was formerly listed as Threatened in Ontario and is currently listed as a Special Concern species under Ontario’s Endangered Species Act, 2007 (ESA) (OMNR 2010). Since 1700, the landscape of southern Ontario has undergone radical changes, from a predominantly forested landscape with small amounts of natural openings (prairie, savannah, alvar, open wetlands) and some areas of Aboriginal agriculture, to almost completely forested following the demise of the Aboriginal people upon contact with Europeans, to almost completely deforested by 1900 due to the wholesale removal of the forests by the early settlers (Larson et al. 2011). 2004; Chiver et al. 2004). 19 pp. Bird Studies Canada, Port Rowan, ON. 1987, 2007). 2011). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, NY, USA. Standardized counts of spring migrants at LPBO show a long-term increasing trend of 3.4%/yr (p<0.0001) over a fifty-year period 1961-2010, 2.7%/yr (p=0.006) over a forty-year period,1970-2010, and 6.2%/yr (p=0.28) for the most recent 10-year or approximately 3-generation period 2000-2010 (Figure 3) (T. Crewe, Bird Studies Canada, pers. The breeding biology of the population in southern Ontario has been the focus of several studies at core sites, including longer-term work at two large (>1000 ha) public forest complexes with the largest known Hooded Warbler population in Canada: the South Walsingham Forest in 1988-98, and the St. Williams Forest (now St. Williams Conservation Reserve, SWCR) in 1999-2010 (both in Norfolk County). 2009. Designations are made on native species for the following taxonomic groups: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, arthropods, molluscs, vascular plants, mosses, and lichens. ; Chiver et al. Sexual differences in gap-crossing ability of a forest songbird in a fragmented landscape revealed through radiotracking. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, CA. Rush, S.A. and B.J.M. Using landscape-level data to predict the distribution of birds on a managed forest: effects of scale. These ranks are being revised to N4B and S4B (Apparently Secure) to reflect current abundance and distribution and increasing population trend (D.A. 2011). Its breeding distribution at the northern periphery of the range is patchy. Males and females both engage in extra-territorial forays to seek out extra-pair copulations with neighbours (Chiver et al. The Hooded Warbler is frequently double-brooded and will re-nest up to three times if previous nests are unsuccessful (Evans Ogden and Stutchbury 1996; Howlett and Stutchbury 2003). 732 pp. The upper value of 2000 individuals assumes that the 2007 survey detected only about 50% of the total population and that the population has increased 20% (~5%/yr) since 2007. 14pp. and S.K. Robinson. All Hooded Warblers breeding in Canada are within a single population and therefore only one designatable unit is considered in this report. The Hooded Warbler is a long-distance migrant that breeds in eastern North America and winters in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2000. Hetzel, J.M. A few males are polygynous and have two females, and a variable proportion of territorial males remain unmated. 2000. The total number of person-hours of field effort increased with each round of surveys, from 350 field hours in 1997 to over 1600 person-hours in 2007 (Heagy and Badzinski 2008). Melles, S.J., D. Badzinski, M-J. Estimated percent increase in total number of mature individuals over any 10 year period, over a time period including both the past and the future. 1998. Eagles, and F.M. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 2007. Patterns of cowbird parasitism in the southern Atlantic coastal plain and piedmont. Howlett, J.S. Ogden, and B.J. 2011). 'Black-throated Green Warbler', 'Black-throated Blue', 'Chestnut-sided', - even 'Hooded ' and 'Yellowthroat' are quite helpful, as long as the birds are in spring plumage. A. and A. S. Love. and P.L. On the breeding grounds, males threaten intruding males with visual displays. Journal of Avian Biology 36:471-477. Hooded Warbler Setophaga citrina In the forest undergrowth, this skulking warbler seems to call attention to itself by frequently fanning its tail quickly open and shut, flashing the white outer tail feathers. Effects of selective logging on forest bird populations in a fragmented landscape. 2009. Pete Dunne's essential field guide companion. Pp. Ontario Birds 6(3):84-99. Once you hear the … Habitat degradation has also been identified as a concern as this species requires mature forest and is adversely affected by forest fragmentation (see Breeding habitat requirements, and life cycle and reproduction). Studies in southwestern Ontario found that Hooded Warbler nest sites have significantly more large mature trees (>38 cm diameter at breast height), fewer small trees, and higher canopy height (mean 27 m) compared to elsewhere in the forest patch (Gartshore 1988; Whittam et al. Pyle, P. 1997. At low levels, insect outbreaks and tree mortality can enhance Hooded Warbler habitat, but severe outbreaks, which alter forest structure (e.g., by killing a high proportion of the large canopy trees), are detrimental. The range-wide BBS data also show statistically significant increases of 40% (3.4%/yr) for 1999-2009 and over 100% (1.8%/yr) for 1966-2009 (Figure 4). Forest Information Series, Province of Ontario, ON. Matthews, K.P. The habitat requirements of the Hooded Warbler in Canada overlap to varying degrees with those of the more than 30 Canadian species at risk associated with Carolinian woodlands in southern Ontario (Jalava et al. Population counts and estimates for the Hooded Warbler in Canada, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Wild Species 2005: The General Status of Species in Canada, NatureServe Explorer: An Online Encyclopedia of Life, Ontario Ministry of Muncipal Affairs and Housing, Generation time (usually average age of parents in the population). 2011). 2011). Auk 120(2):457-465. data). Bradstreet, G.S. 2006. Last recorded on site in 1999 Forest Ecology and Management 260:1241-1250. This small yellow songbird is readily identified by its distinctive plumage and vocalizations. Friesen, L., M.D. Cream-colored with scattered brown spots. Nesting success of Kentucky and Hooded Warblers in bottomland forests of South Carolina. Brewer, D., A. Diamond, E.J. Sutherland, D.A. Ottawa. A female Hooded Warbler banded at the SWCR site in Ontario in July 2000 was at least 11 years old when last re-sighted in July 2009 (BSC unpubl. Ottawa. 2004. inding the Hooded Warbler, or any warbler for that matter involves slow attentive walks or driving, constant listening and a lot of patience. 2011). Figure 3. The breeding biology of this species is fairly typical of other small passerines. Hooded Warbler “Every spring my husband and I make a trip to Kanawha State Forest near Charleston, West Virginia, to look for migrating warblers,” says Teresa McClung. 1 Click here to hear the song of a Hooded Warbler. Check-list of North American birds, 7th edition. Heagy and Badzinski have been actively involved in Hooded Warbler fieldwork in Ontario for many years including the extensive Hooded Warbler population surveys conducted in 1997, 2002, and 2007; and the long-term intensive breeding study at the St. Williams Conservation Reserve. 2002; Lacki et al. Beck, D. Lepage, and A.R. 1997. National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, ON. Thompson III, W.B. The range map used in Figure 1 was prepared with data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgeley, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy – Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International – CABS, World Wildlife Fund – US, and Environment Canada – WILDSPACE. 2007. 1994; Badzinski 2007; Walters and Nol 2011). The effects of selective logging on nest-site selection and productivity of hooded warblers (Wilsonia citrina) in Canada. plus appendices. and B.J.M. Relationships among North American songbird trends, habitat fragmentation, and landscape occupancy. Thus, the IAO of all known breeding occurrences during 2001-2010 is 860 km². Lake Erie does not pose a significant geographic barrier to this migratory species, although it may reduce immigration rates (Melles et al. This winter habitat segregation was first detected with this species and is now known to occur in other neotropical migrants such as American Redstart, Northern Parula, and Black-throated Blue Warbler. Bird Studies Canada, Environment Canada, Ontario Field Ornithologists, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, and Ontario Nature, Toronto. Journal of Wildlife Management 61(1):159-171. The extent of occurrence (EO) of the Hooded Warbler in Canada, as delineated by the convex range envelope polygon described by all occurrences with probable or confirmed breeding evidence reported during OBBA2 (2001-05), is approximately 50,000 km² (or about 75,000 km² if records with possible breeding evidence are included). 71 pp. Pasher, J., D. King, and K. Lindsay. 60 pp. Pither, R. 1997. Wintering habitat in Mexico and Central America has been affected by deforestation and agricultural intensification (Conway et al. Scarr, T.A., K.L. These rates are comparable to other studies of Hooded Warblers in Ontario (e.g., Eng 2007). Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario. Sauer, J. R., D. K. Niven, J. E. Hines, D. J. Ziolkowski Jr., K. L. Pardieck, J. E. Fallon, and W. A. This member of the large New World wood-warbler (Parulidae) family was formerly classified in the genus Wilsonia, along with Wilson’s Warbler (Cardellina pusilla) and Canada Warbler (C. canadensis). The altricial nestlings are fed by both adults and leave the nest 8 to 9 days after hatching. A wildlife species facing imminent extirpation or extinction. Journal of Biogeography 29:1505-1516. Dawson, and B.A. Effects of selective logging on breeding bird communities in bottomland hardwood forests in Louisiana. American redstart. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. Hanula, S.Horn and M.D. DRAFT National Recovery Strategy for Carolinian Woodlands and Associated Species at Risk: Phase 1. Recovery strategy for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) and Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina) in Canada [Proposed]. The index of area of occupancy (IAO) was calculated by assigning available geo-referenced breeding evidence data to standard 2 km x 2 km cells. Hooded warblers are very rare vagrants to western Europe. and K.G. Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? The total global breeding range (extent of occurrence) is approximately 2,000,000 km², while the total global wintering range is much smaller at approximately 750,000 km² (derived from Ridgeley et al. These preferences are not absolute: Hooded Warblers will use forest edges and they can nest successfully in very small forest patches (e.g., <5 ha in Pennsylvania, as small as 10 ha in Ontario) in areas with high regional forest cover (Norris et al. Available habitat in southern Ontario does not appear to be saturated, even at core sites such as SWCR, which have been occupied for more than a decade (Melles et al. 706 pp. Not all routes have been surveyed continuously for the entire period. 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